Saturday, July 2, 2011

Muqali (1170-1223), One Of The Greatest Generals Under Genghis Khan

Mongol warriors

Muqali or Mukhulai (1170–1223) was one of the greatest generals under Genghis Khan of Jalayir descent and the first prince of the Mongol Empire. The fact that his father died trying to save Genghis Khan during a battle coupled with his own skills in battle led Muqali to become one of the Khan's most trusted generals. He was a participant in many battles in Genghis Khan's unification of Central Asia confederations.

During the coronation of Genghis Khan, Muqali was given the command of the Third Tumen and control over the Eastern mingghans. In 1211, the Battle of the Badger Mouth he created the first and greatest merit for Mongol. After Genghis Khan decided to go to war with the Khwarezmid Empire, he gave control of all Turco-Mongol forces to Muqali and gave him the title of King, a largely ceremonial title. Despite Genghis Khan having most of the main Turco-Mongol forces taken away and sent to the West, Muqali was able to subdue most of Northern China with his small force of around 20,000 men, although some historians give figures of between 40,000 and 70,000 men. In 1217 Muqali attacked the province of Hopeh as well as northern Shantung and northern Shansi. This was an important agricultural area, which Muqali had largely subdued by 1219. In 1220 Muqali turned his attention to the rest of Shantung; four towns were captured, but the hard-pressed Chin managed to hold on elsewhere in the province. Muqali's last campaign began in 1222. He crossed the Wei River and attacked south, capturing towns that had already been plundered by a previous Mongol general-Samuqa, who suddenly disappeared from Mongol history. Meanwhile, the Chin launched a counter-attack into the province of Shansi. Muqali swiftly raced to the area; the Chin fled without giving battle. Besieging another town, Muqali became seriously ill and died shortly thereafter. On his deathbed, Muqali declared with pride that he had never been defeated. After his death, Genghis Khan gave command to Muqali's son Birdlu. In seven years of campaigning in northern China, he had reduced the Chin empire to the province of Honan. He had proved himself to be an excellent general who was indefatigable in his efforts to serve his master, Genghis Khan.

A few of his descendants, such as Antong and Baiju, later became prominent officials in the Confucian fashion of the Yuan Dynasty founded by Kublai Khan in China.

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1 comment:

  1. I would be very interested to know which of the persons is the General Muqali.